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At such times, his snow-white lower quill-feathers are shinning far. It is to this signal that the preserve owner reacts. The marked and occupied preserve provides undisturbed mating for the owner. As long as the preserve borders are not definitely recognized, other monogamous or polygamous cocks often try to expropriate it.

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The preserve fight may end with severe injuries or even death of one of the partners. On sites with a great number of monogamous cocks living in one population Csabacsd, Nagyszénás preserve fights are frequent. With polygamy, fights occur less frequently and were never observed by the author with the un- mated type rutting in packs. Generally, the farther the sexual ratio of a population from natural 1 1 the less active the preserve defense will be.

Rutting by the three sexual types The great bustard cock is capable of reproduction from its fifth to sixth year on Gewalt, His rutting display is taking place when having got hormonally suitable for it, having taken possession of a rutting preserve, with one or more female birds staying nearby, finally when excited by the sight of sexual rivalry or some other sex effect.

The sexual behaviour of the cock ready for mating hofstetter sports suisse anti aging first manifests itself in an aggressiveness anxious for the partner, then gradually takes on a commanding character and on such level has the only aim of arousing in the hen the mood for copulating.

Details of the sequence and daily rhythm of rutting movements are omitted here since these are well known from literature Summary in: Dornbusch — — Klafs Winkler in: Glutz, All three sexual types agree in that it is the preserve owner cock that is visited by one or more hens.

In the case of monogamy, as soon as a hen nearing the cock gets inside the preserve boundaries she becomes possession of the cock who is ruling over her. He does not let his partner go over to the preserve of foreign cocks observations at Kardoskút, Csabacsd, Cserbökény and Székkutas.

On the 19th Aprila cock being in full rutting at Békéssámson repeatedly tried mating with his hen, unsuccessfully. After repeated futile efforts he expelled his indifferent partner from the preserve. Next day, this cock was rutting again in the company of a hen but whether his previous-day mate has returned or he acquired a new hen could not be stated.

As regards polygamy, the cock has domination over a harem consisting of two-three -four hens, likewise, as the monogamous males.

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The hens' readi- ness for mating may establish an order of rank among the females. As observed by the author at Pusztaföldvár on the 2nd May in a four- member harem of a cock where repeated approaches of two active hens apparently excluded the possibility of fecundating the two other females more difficult to excite.

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With the unmated type the cocks rutting in groups do not dominate anymore the hens gathering round them, probably due to their numerical superiority. Relationship of the sexes is restricted here to the minutes of copulation.

The fertilized hen is driven out from beside the cock by the next nearing female. Approaches by an excess number of hens exclude the possibi- lity of remaining together for a longer period here by the partners.

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For the rest of the populations two or three sexual types were detectable at the sa- me time. It should be emphasized that in such cases monogamous and poly- gamous cocks were staying always more distant from the unmated males rut- ting in groups and more intensively guarded their marked rutting territo- ries.

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This phenomenon is independent already from the pat- tern of populations, from the age and hormonal state of cocks and also from the season. At Csabacsd No. Cocks two to three years of age raised semi -wild at the great bustard rearing station in Dévaványa were rutting for some minutes when alarmed by the appearance of foreign persons on their X hofstetter sports suisse anti aging enclosure. Whether resulting from sexual of other excitement rutting always means such tension as can be led back to the state of rest only by substitute activity.

Behavior of non-rutting young and old cocks No manifestations referring to their later sexual types were noticed by the author in the behaviour of sexually immature cockerels. These birds forming smaller feeding communities were hofstetter sports suisse anti aging in packs in the environs of rutting grounds or inside them. The community of cockerel packs disintegrates only after the reproduction period when the social relations of all great bustards hofstetter sports suisse anti aging regard to age and sex are disturbed by moulting.

Author kept watching here since a very big old cock that did not mark out a rutting preserve for himself in the last eight years, was not rutting and did not join the feeding community of young males either.

He remained alone from the disintegration of the winter great bustard packs until autumn flocking. Omitting aggresive forms of expression he was staying unhurt on territories of both monogamous and polygamous active males. Behavior of the hen at the time of rutting with the three sexual forms Sexual interest of the hen is aroused by the cock when latter is making commanding movements.

On the same site, it was found on several occasions that ,play rutting" by cockerels of no full sexual value was ignored by the hens.

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The more showy the rutting of old cocks the sooner the hen gets excited. Hens need more excitement than males for mating to come about. At Kardos- 43 kút No. The expelled male tried in vain to return first peacefully then aggressively. After the failure he roamed in the company of his hen in the environs of his earlier preserve but after loss of the rutting ground he discontinued rutting. After two days the hen left the male.

This year there was no nesting here. As regards grouped rutting by unmated cocks, as well known, females try to associate now with one now with another cock and make efforts to precede their rivals in mating.

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Under such circumstances the more specta- cularly commanding cocks are getting at more hens but too frequent copu- lation is probably one of the reasons of the frequent infertility of eggs. There- fore, among cocks rutting in groups there are often males to be hofstetter sports suisse anti aging rutting steadily but unable to accept the approaches of hens flocking round them.

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Relationship of cocks and hens in the post-fecundation period The sexual relations of the various types still difficult to look over in the hours of rutting is more clearly differentiating during the post-copulation period.

After fecundation the hen leaves the rutting preserve and retires to her nesting site.

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As regards the populations in Eastern Hungary usually there is no large distance, as a rule only a few hundred metres, between the rutting and nesting grounds. The hen is receding into larger distance only when forced by the state of the field vegetation. In the case of monogamy the partners remain together also after mating.

The cock follows the hen retiring to her nesting site, is keeping guard nearby, and the more active males vigorously defend their hatching mate. This behaviour was described by Chernél as being of general validity. Such a nest protecting scene was observed by the author at Kardoskút No. Here a cock staying at about 40 to 50 m distance from the nest approached to 20 m a woman gathering flowers of camomile Matricaria chamomillathen jumping up a few times tried to force her to leave with outstretched neck and hovering wings.

This behaviour pattern said to be frequent in earlier observations and in literature occurs but rarely at present as a consequence of the unnatural population patterns developed.

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The monogamous cock following his mate to the nesting ground is rutting still for a few days while guarding the hatching hen. It was observed by the author at Csabacsûd No. As retards mono- gamous types, the community of partners disintegrates late in the nestling rearing period probably when cocks start summer moulting Sterbetz, Polygamous cocks do not show uniform behaviour. Thereafter, he did not care any- more for the other three hens of the harem.

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At Csabacsûd No.

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